A milestone has been reached in strengthening transparency and accountability in the cocoa supply chain to reduce its impact on West African forests. The top cocoa-producing countries of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, and the world’s leading chocolate and cocoa companies are releasing action plans to end deforestation in the cocoa sector and restore forest areas. This public disclosure is part of the implementation commitments of the Cocoa & Forests Initiative, which was launched in November 2017 at the UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn, Germany.
The action plans focus on (1) forest protection and restoration, (2) sustainable cocoa production and farmers’ livelihoods, and (3) community engagement and social inclusion. The governments and companies have committed to no further conversion of
any forest land for cocoa production. They have pledged to eliminate illegal cocoa production in protected areas, in line with stronger enforcement of national forest policies and development of alternative livelihoods for affected farmers. These combined actions will play a crucial role in sequestering carbon stocks and addressing global and local climate change, in line with the Paris Climate Agreement.
The governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana have developed and published National Implementation Plans for the Initiative. This follows extensive consultations with stakeholders, including cocoa and chocolate companies, farmer groups, environmental organizations, and development partners.
The National Plan for Côte d’Ivoire builds on the new Declaration of Policy for Forest Preservation, Rehabilitation and Extension adopted by the government in May 2018. Key strategic priorities include passage of the new Forest Code by government on January 30, 2019 (readied for final approval by the National Assembly in April 2019), creation of a National Forest Preservation and Rehabilitation Fund, development and implementation of the national cocoa traceability system, and implementation of pilot projects in five priority regions.
The National Plan for Ghana leverages the Ghana Cocoa Forest REDD+ Program to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and enhance carbon stocks through sustainable forest management. The priority actions are to scale up landscape approaches to end forest degradation in six Hotspot Intervention Areas, improve cocoa yields through adoption of environmentally sound climate-smart practices, and strengthen supply chain mapping.
Thirty-three companies**, accounting for about 85% of global cocoa usage, have joined the Cocoa & Forests Initiative. Each company has now completed its initial action plan to spell out the steps taken over the 2018-2022 period to support ending deforestation and restoring forest areas in the cocoa supply chain. These initial plans will be updated in 2019 in conjunction with the governments’ completion of several ongoing steps, including the revision of land use policies and regulations, mapping of protected areas, and collection of key forest and land use data.
The World Cocoa Foundation today released the consolidated initial plans of the companies for Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Each company will publicly disclose its own individual initial plan over the next three weeks.
The companies and governments are now beginning to implement key actions on the ground to halt deforestation in the most ecologically important and environmentally sensitive areas. Significant steps include:
- Government implementation of land use and socio-economic surveys in priority areas to collect baseline data for the design of new agro-forestry and conservation programs;
- Development of farm mapping and traceability systems to ensure cocoa is sourced legally from farms outside of protected areas and monitor where cocoa from deforested areas could enter into the supply chain;
- Development of new landscape corridors to connect up fragmented forest reserves, and community-based landscape management to scale up conservation efforts through broader “jurisdictional approaches;”
- Investments in sustainable agricultural intensification in order to “grow more cocoa on less land,” with a focus on climate-smart production techniques, farmer training, increased access to financing, new government operational guidelines and company investment for agroforestry;
- Looking at incentive-based systems to promote environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, for instance through the launch of payments for environmental services contracts directly with farmers;
- Government land tenure reforms and tools that allow farmers to obtain official ownership of valuable non-cocoa trees on their farms and thereby encourage investment in agro-forestry; and
- Use of satellite monitoring to track illegal deforestation in hotspot areas and issue deforestation alerts.
Côte d’Ivoire Minister of Water and Forests Alain-Richard Donwahi said, “Ending deforestation is a complex social, economic, and environmental challenge. Our new Forest Policy adds momentum for sustainable management of Côte d’Ivoire’s forests, and
our National Plan for the Cocoa & Forests Initiative defines the key actions that the government will take. We welcome the initial action plans of industry, and look forward to robust implementation of these public and private commitments to restore our forest heritage and ensure sustainable livelihoods for cocoa farmers. Companies and governments are stepping up – we call on development partners and civil society organizations to join us and support long-term solutions for sustainable cocoa production
and forest management.”
Ghana Minister of Lands and Natural Resources Kwaku Asomah-Cheremeh said, “The Ghana National Plan for the Cocoa & Forests Initiative is a critical building block in our strategic framework for sustainable economic growth. We aim to secure the future of our
forests and make the cocoa sector climate-resilient, whilst sustaining and enhancing income and livelihood opportunities for farmers and forest users. Partnership with the private sector is critical to unleash the financing and technical knowledge for climatesmart cocoa production and reduced emissions from deforestation.”
World Cocoa Foundation Chairman Barry Parkin said, “The industry committed in 2017 to partner with cocoa producing governments to end deforestation in the supply chain. The disclosure of the initial company action plans is a major milestone to ensure transparency and accountability for our commitment. As we implement key actions on the ground, we look forward to partnering with international financial organizations to mobilize financing, garner knowledge, and technical assistance to scale up impact.”
** Companies that have signed the Framework for Action of the Cocoa & Forests Initiative are Arysta Callivoire, Barry Callebaut, Blommer Chocolate Company, Cargill Cocoa and Chocolate, Cémoi, Chocolats Halba, Cocoanect, Cococo Chocolatiers, ECOM Group, Fazer, Ferrero, General Mills Inc., Godiva Chocolatier Inc., Guittard Chocolate Company, The Hershey Company, Indcresa, Lindt & Sprüngli Group, Marks & Spencer Food, Mars Wrigley Confectionery, Meiji Co. Ltd., Mondelēz International, Nestlé, Olam Cocoa, PBC Limited, Sainsbury’s, SIAT, Tesco, Toms Group, Touton, Tree Global, Unilever, Valrhona, and J.H. Whittaker & Sons.
Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, which produce about 65% of the global cocoa supply, have lost 17% and 13% of their forest cover, respectively, from 2001 to 2017, primarily as a result of agricultural encroachment. It is estimated that at least 2.3 million hectares of the Upper
Guinean rainforest in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana have been cleared for cocoa farms between 1988 and 2007.
In response, the world’s leading cocoa and chocolate companies and the governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana came together in 2017 and launched the Cocoa & Forests Initiative. The Initiative has been coordinated by the World Cocoa Foundation, IDH – the Sustainable Trade Initiative, and The Prince of Wales’s International Sustainability Unit.
The Initiative has been supported by several global development partners, including the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the Global Environment Facility, and the Green Commodities Program of the United Nations Development Program.
The Initiative is coordinated closely with a wide range of global and local environmental organizations and partnerships, including the Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, Amsterdam Declaration Partnership, Partnerships for Forests, Rainforest Alliance, and World Resources Institute.